The implantological restoration of deficient teeth represents a new routine engagement with high success rates. Thereby, dentures usually consist of three parts: implant, abutment and crown. Especially within the anterior region, abutments, as a transition to the visible crown, can become visible. This circumstance normally leads to insufficient esthetic results. Aiming to antagonize this disadvantage, the innovative coating technology plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) can produce thick ceramics coating that mimic the natural teeth whitening. The study describes the manufacturing process, feasibility and initial cell tests regarding cytocompatibility and soft tissue attachment testing of the new coatings.
Materials and methods:
After manufacturing, the transitions of abutments were ceramized by PEO. Surface analysis was achieved by means of SEM, EDX and profilometry. The ceramic layer and the abutments themselves were tested in accordance with DIN ISO 109935/-12 for cytocompatibility. The adherence of fibroblasts was evaluated by Live-Dead staining. Micro-mechanical and wear behavior of the coatings were characterized by means of ultra-micro-hardness analysis and abrasion tests, respectively.
The visible transitions of abutments were successfully ceramized representing a whitish surface. The layer itself showed a rough and porous surface in microscopic investigations. A discoloration of the surface could not be detected after repeated immersion tests in heparinized blood. Besides cytocompatibility, the adherence of fibroblasts of both PEO specimens and uncoated titanium test samples was equivalent.
The white ceramic layer manufactured by PEO can increase the overall esthetic appearance of abutments in the anterior teeth region. The layer itself was resistible to discoloration and showed promising cytocompatibility and cell adherence of fibroblasts.